Jin Zhong: “Queen of Red Capital” Jiang Qing committed suicide

img 291d843c523a 1
江青 毛泽东——这是江青送给维特克的照片,该照片被用在了《红都女皇》(英文版)的封面上。

Jiang Qing Mao Zedong – This is a photo Jiang Qing gave to Witke, which was used on the cover of “Queen of the Red Capital” (English version).

[Author’s note: During the Cultural Revolution, there was a well-known “Queen of Red Capital” incident. The American scholar Witke came to China to visit Jiang Qing and published Jiang Qing’s biography “Queen of the Red Capital”. It was not until 2005 that Zhang Ying, wife of CCP diplomat Zhang Wenjin, published a memoir, revealing the truth about the “Queen of Red Capital” incident. There is actually a top-level political conspiracy hidden…]

Jiang Qing (1914-1991) is the most dramatic and mysterious figure in the history of the CCP. The truth about her life and its interpretation are a mystery left to the Chinese in the 20th century. As the wife of a generation of hero Mao Zedong, she took the advantages of this “first lady” sexual relationship to the extreme and became a “standard bearer of the Cultural Revolution”, making a billion people dance with her flag, and her power Big, can be described as an uncrowned queen, her prostitution surpasses all famous women in history. The “Queen of Red Capital” incident in 1972, a court drama starring Jiang Qing, was an amorous court drama, which became a rare scandal in the history of the CCP.

This incident was once a household topic in mainland China during the ten-year Cultural Revolution, and was investigated nationwide as a political rumor, but the common people just followed suit. The CCP authorities have not disclosed the truth of the incident in party documents, official media and publications for 30 years.

Zhang Ying witnessed the whole process of the conversation between Jiang Qing and Witke
This year (2005), published by Hubei People’s Publishing House, the official release of Zhang Ying’s memoir “The Experience of Diplomacy”, which contains more than 100,000 words of records entitled “The Truth of the Red Queen”, can be regarded as the official response to this piece of history. A blank fill. The incident happened in mid-to-late August 1972. Jiang Qing had several conversations with Guangzhou and visiting American scholar Roxane Witke (1938-) in Beijing for more than 60 hours. Writing a biography for her in the United States made Luo Shan famous in the Western world, and at the same time she also realized her “Queen’s Dream” (Jiang Qing had asked Evans, Han Suyin and others to write her biography, but they were all declined.)

This matter was approved by Zhou Enlai at that time. Because there are many foreign guests, the reception must be approved weekly. Zhou said to Jiang Qing: “I can see this person, talk for an hour. If you don’t want to see it, you can also.” The hall interviewed Witke and was accompanied by Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hairong, Zhang Ying, Ding Xuesong and others, all of whom were in charge of cultural propaganda and foreign affairs. Zhang Ying represents the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Jiang Qing’s first conversation lasted three hours, and he hosted a banquet with over-standard recipes. In the evening, he watched the model play “Red Lantern” together. Jiang Qing was flattering and flattering, and Witek was flattered. A few days later, Jiang Qing flew to Guangzhou on a special plane, and brought Witke to Guangzhou, where he stayed for more than a month (six weeks), and continued to talk many times.

Zhang Ying was a participant in all the conversations, and was instructed by Zhou Enlai to organize each conversation into a document. Zhang Ying was fifty years old at the time, an old member of the Communist Party of China. He went to Yan’an at the age of 16, and later sent Chongqing to work under Zhou Enlai. He was fluent in English. Her husband Zhang Wenjin was appointed as Pakistan’s ambassador. In her book, she quoted the original conversation between Jiang Qing and Witke, all in quotation marks. And explained: “All narrations are the original words of the two… This is a true record.”

What did Jiang Qing talk about? When we met for the first time, the topic was sensational: “I am in very bad health, I take sleeping pills every day, this is Lin Biao trying to kill me, poisoning me, poisoning our food, the chairman and I are both sick, and the doctor doesn’t know whether it is What’s the disease?” Zhang Ying described, Jiang Qing laughed for a while, and sweetly for a while. She claimed that her personal history, revolutionary struggle, and many romantics can all be told to you. Jiang Qing opened the scene like this, causing the attendants to be in a daze, sitting on the sofa not daring to move. Only Yao Wenyuan “smiled all the time and kept his composure” (later Zhang Ying said that Yao hid and did not reveal it, and knew Jiang Qing’s plan for a long time). Then Jiang Qing said very seriously: “Let’s cooperate, I will provide materials, I will tell you, and you will write. Edgar Snow wrote about Mao Zedong and the Communist Party in the 1930s, and became famous in the West. You are very young, Very talented. You write about me and modern China, you are the second Snow, and you will be famous all over the world.”

Jiang Qing took Witke to watch her model play, and specially created a scene of standing ovation, let Vitke see her majesty, and taught her by words and deeds on the spot… From the American movie “Gone with the Wind” to the Soviet Union Stanislavsky, eloquent Incessantly. Completely conquered Witke. Zhang Ying watched the 34-year-old American scholar blushed and at a loss as to what to do under the favor of China’s most powerful woman. Witke later wrote in Comrade Jiang Qing:

“Jiang Qing, with extraordinary courage, stood on the edge of tradition and people’s beliefs, and became a pioneering female leader in a turning era. She mastered artistic authority and determined people’s consciousness. She was constantly adventurous and diligent, and under the improvisational style of the Cultural Revolution, she betrayed her. In the 1960s, when the superstructure industry was ruthlessly promoted, Jiang Qing appeared as a chief engineer, waving the blueprint devised by Mao Zedong.”

Jiang Qing took the initiative to talk about romance and Mao’s marriage
Zhou Enlai, who paid close attention to Jiang Qing’s meeting with Witke, held three working meetings after the first meeting to understand the situation and listen to reports, and found that Witke knew very little about Chinese culture and the history of the CCP. During this period, Witke suddenly proposed an idea: China needs a Song Meiling and can get US assistance. She was interested in Jiang Qing, and she brought her out, so that Americans could like Jiang Qing like Song Meiling. Jiang Qing didn’t care about it, and everyone didn’t understand. Zhou kept talking with Jiang Qing on the phone, daring not to offend Jiang Qing. However, Zhang Ying and other people in the reception group believed that Jiang Qing not only boasted in the conversation, but also talked about people and things that the CCP regards as highly confidential. She went to Guangzhou to talk about the Revolutionary War. Zhou Enlai said: “Don’t talk about war, just talk about literature and art. Goodbye is enough. Vitek’s visa has arrived, don’t extend it.” On August 25, Vitek, Zhang Ying and his party moved to Guangzhou by special plane. That night, she ate and talked for nine hours in a “beautiful little villa” managed by the army, and began Jiang Qing’s long march to review her revolutionary history as well.

Jiang Qing positioned herself: “I became famous at the age of 21, but I don’t want it. I want to find the party. I was publicly persecuted by the Kuomintang, and also persecuted by the bad guys in the party. I am an unsung hero, and I am willing to be an unsung hero.” She said The victory of the Chinese Civil War began in July 1947. In the Northwest battlefield, Chairman Mao guided the whole country. “I am the only female comrade who follows Chairman Mao. I think that in the hard war years, someone should take care of him and share weal and woe with him… …” Jiang Qing specially invited Zhang Qinghua, director of the State Administration of Surveying and Mapping, to hang up three maps of the war situation for her, and explain to Witke Mao’s strategy and tactics for dispatching the enemy. She pointed to Chairman Mao’s route of action and said, “Chairman Mao and I personally directed the war in the northwest battlefield.” Jiang Qing then described in great detail how to deal with and fight guerrillas with Mao Zhou’s Central Brigade and Hu Zongnan’s army in northern Shaanxi. , issued orders, commanded the overall situation, until it was successfully stationed in Xibaipo… Showing amazing memory. Admired by Witke.

In terms of private life, Zhang Ying also made an introduction. Jiang Qing confessed, “When I was young, I was full of emotions, and my personal life was very romantic. Chinese women all carry the burden of feudalism, but I don’t. I can do what I want. … I like Shanghai the most. You foreigners say that Shanghai is an adventurer’s paradise, which makes a lot of sense. I like all Shanghai tunes, it’s really very flavorful.” After speaking, Jiang Qing hummed the Shanghai tune: “Oh, my little sister.” Yeah, I can’t bear to part with you… Haha, haha. She said that as soon as she arrived in Shanghai, she had many boyfriends. They used various means to pursue me. I remember their names. Later, they all became famous people, and now they were beaten down again. The story of an American sailor trying to molest her.

Regarding the matter of marrying Mao Zedong, Jiang Qing took the initiative to break the news. “It is false to say that the central government has made a decision. It is completely fabricated by Wang Ming.” (It is said that the top leaders of the CCP decided not to let Jiang Qing participate in politics.) She said that there were people who opposed our marriage at that time, and Xiang Ying also sent a telegram. He was a traitor (I didn’t know it at the time), Chairman Mao called him back and said, “I learn from Sun Yat-sen.” Said that He asked for a divorce. She went to Moscow, Mao wanted her back, and they had been separated for a year and a half in the Jiangxi Soviet area. “She is very stubborn, doesn’t understand Chairman Mao’s spiritual realm, and doesn’t care about Chairman Mao.” Jiang Qing said: The He family is a landowner, or a commercial capitalist, who runs a tea shop, and the Red Army conquers the city. She is about to enter, and Chairman Mao is unwilling. She doesn’t do any work… In addition, she doesn’t want to have children. I have a daughter (Li Min) that I picked up from a peasant’s home. She went to the Soviet Union to live with He and was beaten by He. The Soviets thought He was crazy, so they locked her up and sent her to a mental hospital. Brain is broken. She also had a boy she lost too. Chairman Mao said, “She didn’t even leave me a child.” Jiang Qing said that Mao Yuanxin, Mao’s concubine, was raised as a son by her.

The CCP interfered with Witke’s book Comrade Jiang Qing

Roseanne Witke entered mainland China on July 20, 1972, and flew back to the United States from Guangzhou on September 3. From August 12th to the beginning of September, I met Jiang Qing and had a long conversation. As a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Zhang Ying has been with her all the time. After sending Witke away, the guests returned with a full load, but she felt that she had woken up from a nightmare. Her responsibility is to report the situation of the Guangzhou talks to Qiao Guanhua and Wang Hairong, the leaders of the department. Her attitude is very clear, she doesn’t appreciate Jiang Qing’s actions, and she doesn’t advocate sending hundreds of thousands of words of audio recordings to Vitek in the United States. Because it involves a lot of “party secrets”. What she disliked most about Jiang Qing was:

“She always wears the big hat of traitor, spy, and counter-revolutionary to all those whom he deems bad. She really speaks out, who is a traitor, a spy, a counter-revolutionary… That’s amazing, Maybe one day this person will come to disaster and be imprisoned or even unjustly executed in prison. At that time, Jiang Qing’s revenge mentality reached its peak, and she would not let go of all the people and things in her mind, big and small. ”

After Zhang Ying and others returned to Beijing, Jiang Qing kept urging to sort out the transcript of the conversation and send it to Vitek in the United States. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not dare to say anything about Jiang Qing’s request. Zhang Ying finally found Zhou Enlai and talked with Deng Yingchao for three hours. Zhou then held three special meetings. At the end of 1972, he announced: “Chairman Mao has been asked for instructions, the records do not need to be sent to Ms. Witke, and all work is stopped. All records are cleaned up and sealed, and one file is filed.” Zhang Ying and others did so. . In the autumn of 1973, Zhang Ying went to Ottawa as a counselor at the embassy. In 1974, the “criticism of Lin and Confucius” reached its climax. At the same time, the country was investigating the political rumor “Queen of the Red Capital”, and it was rumored that Mao criticized Jiang Qing for this. Zhang Ying returned to China for vacation. From her colleagues in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, she learned that Jiang Qing’s conversation records, which were stored in the iron-clad safe in the secret room of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, had been taken away by Jiang Qing and burned by her. Zhang Ying specifically told her old leader Ye Jianying about this. In 1976, Zhang Ying returned to China for vacation and lived for four months before returning to Canada. Mao passed away and was returned to China in mid-October to meet with the “Fan Cui Gang of Four”. While excited, Zhang Ying was included in the list of “Queen of the Red Capital” who colluded with Jiang Qing. She consulted Ye Shuai again and was comforted. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs appointed Zhang Ying to be responsible for compiling materials on Jiang Qing’s conversation with Witke for the purpose of reviewing the Gang of Four. She sat in on the trial of Jiang Qing.

After Witke returned to the United States, the official transcript of Jiang Qing’s conversation she was looking forward to was never available. At the beginning of the breakup, she also exchanged many books, photos, documentaries and other information with Jiang Qing. In May 1973, He Liliang officially informed her that the transcript of the conversation with Jiang Qing was “too long and complicated” and was not suitable for public publication (ie, refused to give it to her). It is best to advise her not to write a biography of Jiang Qing, but a history of the revolution led by Mao, in which chapters one and two are written about Jiang Qing – Witke sees this as an “external manifestation” of differences within the CCP. Looking back, it’s okay, you can get rid of the constraints of the Chinese side and use Jiang Qing’s large amount of oral data to “don’t be Jiang Qing’s microphone.” In January 1974, He Liliang again put pressure on the publication of Jiang Qing’s complete autobiography, and offered to exchange money for Witke’s submission, which was rejected. Witke conducted research at Stanford and Harvard, and at the same time paid attention to a series of major events in China after her departure, including the return of Deng, the death of Zhou and Mao, and the fall of Jiang Qing, as well as the irresponsible rumors about Jiang Qing’s conversation with her.

img 291d843c523a 2The Lin Biao incident and the Jiang Qing incident reflected the inevitable defeat of Mao’s revolution.

So, in 1977, a Boston publishing house published Witke’s book Comrade Chiang Ch’ing (Comrade Jiang Qing). In Zhang Ying’s 2005 memoir, she introduced the book (English version) in five parts in chronological order: early life, from Shanghai to Yan’an, Beijing and Moscow in the 1950s, the Cultural Revolution, and the hegemony of the Chinese art scene. Zhang Ying said: As far as she knows, the book has never been translated into Chinese. Then, Zhang Ying made the following comments on “Comrade Jiang Qing” as the end of her memoir:

  1. In 1977, Jiang Qing had already collapsed. Witke did not blindly tout Jiang Qing, but had her own opinions and revised some of Jiang Qing’s conversations. But many of the details are quite specific.

  2. The whole book obeys Jiang Qing’s original intention: to create an all-round image of a Chinese leader who is both a military strategist, a statesman, and an all-round artist.

  3. Jiang Qing made up the conversation about the Northwest battlefield, and couldn’t explain it clearly. But Witke made it clear that Jiang Qing did not “knit sweaters for Mao Zedong”, but participated in that important war. She contributed to the founding of the country, but she did not get the position of leader. The Cultural Revolution broke out.

  4. Zhang Ying emphasized that Witke’s “Comrade Jiang Qing” and the legendary “Queen of the Red City” are completely two books, two different things. Because she participated in the whole process of Vitek Jiang Qing’s talk and insisted on her position. Therefore, she expressed understanding and sympathy for Witke, an American scholar.

“Empress of the Red Capital” put on an oolong, Zhang Guan and Li Dai
Browsing through numerous articles on the research and analysis of the “Queen of the Red Capital” incident, many people have been dislocated in time and space for this strange case involving the supreme power and the confluence of China and foreign countries.

img 291d843c523a 3“The Red Queen” – the cover of the Chinese edition published in Hong Kong in 2006

Please see:

Mao’s interim heir Hua Guofeng, after arresting the Gang of Four, said that “The Red Queen” “demeans the chairman, and the content is indecent”. Ye Yonglie, a well-known biographer, said Mao was “very angry” when he saw “The Red Queen”. Fan Shuo, a professor at the Academy of Military Sciences, revealed in a biography of Ye Jianying: After the publication of “Queen of the Red City”, the central government instructed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to buy the copyright at all costs and send it back to China as soon as possible. After submitting to Chairman Mao, Mao was furious after reading it, so he wrote an instruction: “I am ignorant and ignorant. Immediately expel the Politburo and part ways.” Fan Shuo said that he had seen Mao’s instructions in person.

In fact, when Witke’s book was published, Mao was no longer alive… According to legend, the “Queen of the Red Capital” is another book published in Hong Kong. In the 1980s, there were such publications in Hong Kong). However, many critics have denied the existence of the book “Empress of the Red Capital”. Therefore, Mao’s instructions scolded Jiang Qing, which was also considered a forgery… However, Zhang Ying confirmed in her memoirs that she read it after the Cultural Revolution. passed this book. We have no reason not to believe her testimony. But the conversation between Jiang Qing and Witke is an indisputable fact. Take a look at the different versions of “Queen of the Red City”:

First, Witke 1977: Comrade Chiang Ch’ing by Comrade Jiang Qing (English version in Boston);

Second, the Chinese version of Witke’s “Comrade Jiang Qing, Queen of the Red Capital”, translated by Fan Si, Xingker Publishing Company, 2006;

Third, Zhang Ying: The truth about the “Queen of the Red Capital” (Part 3 of “History of Diplomacy”), 2005;

Fourth, “Queen of the Red Capital”. The author and publisher are unknown, popular in Hong Kong and mainland China from 1973 to 1975;

Fifth, manuscripts. He Qinhua (Chuansha educated youth in Shanghai, secretary of the Youth League Committee) in the summer of 1976, secretly read about 50 pages of the manuscript novel “Queen of the Red Capital” during a meeting in the city. Surprised that “Jiang Qing said so many bastards to foreigners”, he reported to the party committee and wrote a memoir, which was handed over to Secretary Ni Hongfu, and many people circulated it. Its whereabouts are unknown. (Legal Network 2013-5)

Sixth, the transcript of Jiang Qing Witke’s conversation. Zhang Ying is in charge of sorting. At the end of 1972, it was ordered to be sealed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Although most of them were taken away and destroyed by Jiang Qing, there was a complete record archive (I wonder if it was accompanied by a recording?) At least the text file should be preserved. Zhang Ying claimed that there are hundreds of thousands of words.

The above six kinds of information, from the perspective of textual research, look at Jiang Qing’s foreign conversations, and the most credible ones should be the official archives that have not been opened by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The second should be “the third” Zhang Ying’s 130,000-word memoir, which has the value of breaking the confidentiality, allowing the public to enter the inside story of the main procedure of the incident for the first time, but it is obviously not the complete original. First, Witke’s work, which can be used for Chinese and English collation, is an exploration of the Cultural Revolution in the Western Sinology community. However, the author emphasizes its “academic nature”, avoids the strong political background of the incident, and has obvious limitations in the selection of materials. Therefore, the “fourth” Hong Kong version of “Queen of the Red Capital” has become an important doubt in exploring the truth and essence of the incident. This version underpinned the official campaign to track down “political rumors” until it became one of Jiang Qing’s crimes after the Cultural Revolution. It is strange that several well-known works on the Cultural Revolution did not mention the whole incident of the “Queen of the Red Capital” at all.

Jiang Qing’s ambition to seize power is a symbol of the demise of a dynasty
This is not recognized by this article. In 1992, Huan Guocang, a scholar studying in the United States (the son of Huanxiang, the assistant to the foreign minister of the Communist Party of China and the vice president of the Academy of Social Sciences), put forward a view in an interview with the Chinese “Times Weekly”, saying that the Queen of Hongdu incident was caused by Zhou Enlai’s plan to divide the relationship between Mao Zedong and Jiang Qing. . The suggestion was that Zhou’s cronie Zhang Ying published “Queen of the Red Capital” in Hong Kong in 1973, which angered Mao and alienated Mao Jiang — this information was sent to the CCP by Chen Xiangmei. When Zhang Ying heard the news, she couldn’t laugh or cry, but Phoenix TV dismissed it as extremely absurd, and Zhou would not make such a decision.

Zhang Ying is suspicious about the publication of “Queen of the Red Capital” in Hong Kong. According to her self-report, at the end of 1973 in Canada, she “knows that a book was published in Hong Kong, probably written by a Chinese, touting Jiang Qing as a queen.” At the end of 1974, she returned to China to track down the rumors of the Queen of Hongdu. She said that the content of the investigation was “truly the content of Jiang Qing’s conversation.” At the same time, the part of Jiang Qing talking about “Dream of Red Mansions” is also circulating. These conversations, which appear to be sealed in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, have been leaked. Wang Hongwen also ordered an investigation. And Mao Zedong’s instructions to part ways with Jiang Qing were also known by Fan Shuo and Zhu De’s grandson Zhu Heping in 1973 (and revealed that Mao’s instructions were given to Zhou, and Zhou said it was Mao’s anger, so he had to suspend the implementation)… All stopped with “mystery”. Some even criticized Jiang Qing so strictly by Mao. To deny the authenticity of Mao’s comments. This is the appearance of the skin, and the choice because of the ugliness of the hair is too numerous to count.

Although the theory of Huan Guocang still needs more proof, logically and macroscopically, I think it is an important indicator of CCP research. The Cultural Revolution brought the darkness and brutality of Mao Zedong’s autocratic dictatorship to the extreme, and the crisis that declared its demise were two major events within the ruling clique: Lin Biao’s defection and Jiang Qing’s usurpation. A royal successor, even risking his own life to defect! And the marshal’s body was still cold, and a slut from Shanghai came to snatch the chairman’s seat again. Mao has clearly stated that “she wants to be the chairman and can’t wait”, and is also the candidate for the “party chairman” on the two successor lists in the palace. Once he took over Mao’s knife handle, Wu Zetian was reborn, and the Gang of Four took over the power. When is the catastrophe? The “Queen of the Red City” incident was the opening gong and drum for Jiang Qing to come to power. Lin Biao and her failure were both signs of the demise of a dynasty. Only historians gave them different honors and humiliations. Therefore, no matter how bizarre and illusory, how deep is the water of Zhou Enlai and Zhang Ying’s faction? What is the success or failure of “the last resort”? “Queen of the Red Capital” is worth our consideration. In fact, after Witke left, Jiang Mao drifted further and further away, and she could not save her fate from being hanged by the true biography of Mao’s tyranny.

[ Postscript] The writing of this article, from the first draft in 2005, to the revised draft in 2022. Quite laborious. I would like to thank the late author Mr. Dong Dingshan for introducing me to many American cultural circles and the 1977 publication of The Red Queen. A series where American liberalism and Chinese authoritarianism collide. The opera “Mrs. Mao” by Sheng Zongliang, a professor of music at the University of Michigan, was performed in the United States in 2004, positioning Jiang Qing as a “victim of China’s patriarchal society”, depicting oppression and revenge, full of desire and murder – Witke is not Snow. In 1973, she told the writer Han Suyin in New York, “Jiang Qing is domineering and domineering, just like the Empress Dowager Cixi, and Yao Wenyuan is like a eunuch by her side.” In addition, the Chinese version of Witke’s “Comrade Jiang Qing” is related to this article, published by Xingkel Publishing Company People and I contacted, published in Hong Kong in 2006. Whittaker’s foreword: “I’m on the sidelines because I’m a historian, not a journalist.”
(Originally published in the June 2005 issue of Open Magazine, rewritten in August 2022)